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References and acknowledgments (archived)


Boyd, S. & Watson, V. (2006). Shifting the frame: Exploring integration of the key competencies at six normal schools. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.

Carr, M. (2001). Assessment in early childhood settings: Learning stories. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.

Carr, M. (in press). Can assessment unlock and open the doors to resourcefulness and agency? In Unlocking assess ment, ed. S. Swaffield. London: Routledge.

Delandshere, G. (2002). Assessment as inquiry. Teachers’ College Record, vol. 104 no. 7, pp. 1461–1484.

Gardner, H. (2006). Five minds for the future. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Hipkins, R. (2006). Background to the key competencies. Report prepared by NZCER for the Ministry of Education. PDF icon. The nature of the key competencies: A background paper (PDF, 653 KB)

Hipkins, R., Boyd, S., & Joyce, C. (2007). Documenting learning of key competencies: A discussion paper. Wellington: Ministry of Education.

Hipkins, R., Roberts, J., & Bolstad, R. (2007). Kick starts: Key competencies: The journey begins. Wellington: NZCER Press.

Ministry of Education. (2004a).  Kei tua o te pae/Assessment for learning: Early childhood exemplars. Book 2: Sociocultural assessment. Wellington: Learning Media.

Ministry of Education. (2004b). The New Zealand Curriculum Exemplars: Science. Wellington: Learning Media and the Learning Centre Trust of New Zealand.


The Ministry of Education wishes to acknowledge the many people who have contributed to developing thinking on the key competencies, including: Rosemary Hipkins, Sally Boyd, Chris Joyce, and Professor Margaret Carr of the University of Waikato, and all the trial schools that have supported the researchers across several projects.

Published on: 17 Mar 2008