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Tutoring strategies for parents

Pause Prompt Praise – Tatari Tautoko Tauawhi (PPP)

Pause Prompt Praise is a set of reading tutoring strategies to help older children experiencing difficulties in learning to read. These strategies help children use all sources of information available to them when they are reading from meaningful texts.

In this programme, parent tutors are trained to recognise the types of mistake children often make in their reading (for example, omissions, substitutions, insertions) and to respond to each mistake by:

  • first pausing (to give the child time to self-correct)
  • then (if necessary) prompting appropriately
  • finally praising the child for all positive behaviours (these are listed and include “turning up for tutoring” and “a bright smile” as well as for self-corrections and all attempts).

A Te Reo version, Tatari, Tautoko, Tauawhi, was developed and trialed in the early 1990s.

Resource packs are available from Down the Back of the Chair

Tatari Tautoko Tauawhi teacher pack code:710734

Tatari Tautoko Tauawhi Student pack code:710735

Requests for this resource should be emailed to DTBOTC Administrator at amanda.hoare@wickliffe.co.nz

Hei Awhiawhi Tamariki ki te Panui Pukapuka (HPP) – Supporting children with storybook reading

Hei Awhiawhi Tamariki ki te Panui Pukapuka (HPP) means “Supporting children’s oral language development within English-medium storybook reading contexts”.

HPP is a tutoring programme where parent tutors are trained to enrich students’ oral language. The parent tutors first read the book and then prepare to develop students’ language by using the “One Hand Approach”. For each picture in the book, they think of four statements they could make (four fingers) and one related question they could ask (the crucial thumb). They also look for examples of words that rhyme.

During the session, they greet the students, introduce the book and preview it using their prepared statements and questions. Then they read the story, and over the next few sessions, they revisit it so that the students can retell the story, identify rhyming sounds, think of more rhymes, and segment words into onset and rime. The emphasis is on enjoying the stories and developing phonological awareness.

Results of trialing in seven low-decile schools in 1999–2000 showed that students made substantial gains in reading, phonological awareness, rhyme recognition, and vocabulary knowledge.

Making a year's progress with HPP and PPP

 

Opotiki Primary School from Ministry of Education on Vimeo.

Principal Tony Howe discusses the strategies used at Opotiki Primary School to improve students’ reading and physical fitness.

Transcript

What the data showed
The kids were making progress but not the progress we were hoping for. On average they were making 0.72 of a year's progress in a year at school. We would hope that kids would make a year’s progress in a year at school. And it wasn’t that the teachers weren’t trying.

Māori in mainstream
We didn’t have the tools, the assessment tools. We didn’t have the individual programmes that suited the needs of the students and we didn’t have the programmes that were proven to work with Māori kids in mainstream. So we looked at what programmes would suit our needs and we ran with HPP, Hei Awhiawhi Tamariki ki te Panui Pukapuka, which is an oral language programme which prepares students to begin the reading process. We included PPP (Pause, Prompt, Praise), which had been well researched, and TARP (Tape Assisted Reading Programme). All of which had been proven to work well with Māori in mainstream.

Train reading tutors
We decided to redefine the roles of the teacher aides. If they're here, let's train them so they are going to help the students improve their achievement levels. We had three teacher aides in the school in 2001 doing the photocopying, making the paints, etc. That doesn’t result in improved student learning. They were taught tutoring procedures and they were trained to do the pre- and post-testing.

So that meant, for the classroom teacher, someone else did the pre- and post-test, and then we wrote a report. And, from that, an individual letter is written home to the parents saying, “Johnny has gone from here to here. Please celebrate the success.”

We’re not into deficittheorisingand saying, “Well, you’re 13 years old and you’re reading at 9. We’re still behind the 8 ball.” Hey, we’ve made a year’s gain! Let’s really celebrate it. That’s really significant given your historical rate of improvement.

Confident students
We’re a decile 1 school and the parents in our school want their kids to be as successful as the parents in a decile 10 school do. They love them to death. They want the best for them.

I think our kids feel pretty good about themselves now. They know they can read and read with success. That’s probably the greatest thing. They’re confident. They’re enjoying and doing better in the other areas.

Healthy students

We’re looking at targets and goals for this year including introducing healthy lunches. So, we cut out all junk food in the school. That means they can’t purchase junk food through the school.

Then we looked at our PE programme. We were concerned about a number of inactive and obese students. We selected a group of 10 students and three times a week they go down to a local gymnasium here. They’re not going there to build big muscles. That’s not the point of it. It’s to get them to enjoy and feel comfortable about being active. And hopefully, that will result in, as they become more active, losing weight, taking part in team sports or individual sports etc. ‘Cos at the moment they’re not.

Recognition for hard work
Winning the MultiServe award in October of 2003 was probably the best PD you could have had for the staff because it made everyone think they were making a difference, a positive difference, for our kids and others are recognising it. That we are doing things well. Yes, we can do them better but it’s nice I think, it’s nice to get a pat on the back and some recognition that you’re hard work is appreciated.

Updated on: 11 May 2018


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